2018-06-27宗教, 文明文化の話, 歴史, 神秘思想・秘儀宗教




Though the Mysteries of the Mithras that came to pervade the Roman world were purportedly of Magian origin, the role of the House of Herod in its formation suggests a possible origin for the evident relationship that exists between them and the emerging form of early Jewish Kabbalah, known as Merkabah mysticism. An important source for the early penetration of these ideas, and which would continue to play an central role in the of dissemination of “Eastern” occult influences to the Western world, through to the time of the Crusades, and finally, the links between European secret societies and Islamic terrorism in our time, would be Egypt.

ローマ帝国を席巻したミトラス秘儀は、意図的にペルシャ系マギの宗教ということにされてきた。しかしヘロデ家が中心にいる以上、彼らと近い関係にあった初期カバラのメルカバ神秘主義(Merkabah mysticism)の影響を無視できない。ミトラスの「東洋的」 オカルトはエジプトを中心に整備され、西洋へ浸透していった。その影響は中世の十字軍時代を経て、現代の欧州秘密結社やイスラム系テロ組織にまで及んでいる。

Although Rome came to dominate the scene politically, it was the city of Alexandria in Egypt, that would continue to dominate culturally. Due to the numerous cultures that congregated in the city, whether Egyptian, Greek, Persian, Indian or Jewish, new esoteric creeds were formulated based on older traditions.

These various schools held in common a type of mysticism, which some scholars term Gnosticism. More correctly, these variations represented aspects of a single school, that is, Kabbalah, exercised through the influence of the substantial Jewish community that existed in the city. As Franz Cumont remarked, a great number of Jewish colonies were scattered everywhere on the Mediterranean, and “the Jews, who were acquainted with the arcana of the Irano-Chaldean doctrines and proceedings, made some of the recipes known wherever the dispersion brought them.”





A mystical Jewish sect existed at Alexandria, known as the Therapeutae, who were related to the more famous group, the Essenes. The Essenes were one of three main philosophical Jewish sects, the other two being the Pharisees and the Sadducees. The Essenes were regarded by their contemporaries as the heirs of Chaldean and Egyptian astronomy, and the medicine of the ancient Persians, and Philo of Alexandria compared them with the Persian Magi and the Indian Yogi.


Today, more is known since the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, which scholars are generally agreed belonged originally the Essene community. According to Scholem, a leading scholar of Kabbalah, it was in apocalyptic literature, examples of which were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls, that contained the earliest evidence among the Jews of the development of Merkabah mysticism, the earliest definite appearance of Kabbalistic ideas in Judaism.



【文化の重層性11-1】神秘思想補説:カバラの基本はアインとエイン・ソフ ※現在作成中


Early Jewish mysticism already incorporated the several tenets that were central to the cult of the Magi, including astrology, numerology and pantheism. However, it is in Merkabah mysticism that we find the first evolution of that doctrine which would become central to all the schools of Hellenistic mysticism, the ascent through the seven palaces. This mystical process involved the initiate advancing successively through the seven planetary spheres, in order to remove the astrological influence his soul had received from them on his descent into matter.


The purpose of Merkabah mysticism is union with the highest god, interpreted as the vision the Chariot of God, described in the first chapter of the Book of Ezekiel.

Supporting the chariot, Ezekiel described four “creatures”, each with a human body, two sets of wings and cloven feet like that of a calf. Each creature had four faces, of a man, lion, ox and eagle, understood esoterically to represent the four seasons and elements. The man is Aquarius or air, the lion is Leo or fire, the ox is Taurus or earth, and the eagle is Scorpio or water. The four wings are the four winds.

The creatures are set on wheels, each like “a wheel inside a wheel,” referring to the intersection of the zodiac and the celestial equator.






「エゼキエルは栄光の幻を見た。 神がケルビムの車輪の上で示されたものである。」(ベン・シラ集会の書49:8)


Early Jewish magic and mysticism connected with the palaces of heaven (hekhalot) and the chariot (merkabah) of Elijah by which he was carried up to heaven.


ケルビムとは智天使と呼ばれる天使格付け第二位の天使で、大事なものを守護する天使。失われた契約の箱(Ark of the Covenant、失われたアークとも)の蓋に乗って中身を守っていたのが一対のケルビム。

Cathédrale d'Auch 20



【文化の重層性11-3】神秘思想補説:ミトラとユダヤ教の大天使メタトロン ※作成中

雅歌(Songs of Solomon)

Merkabah texts involved elaborate anthropomorphic descriptions of God, known as Shiur Komah, which were based on the Song of Solomon. The most important of all Kabbalistic texts, and from which most of its symbolism is derived, the Song of Solomon, or Song of Songs, is a collection of love poems spoken alternately by a man and a woman, a number of which describe the beauty and excellence of the beloved.

To Rabbi Akiva, the great exponent of Merkabah, as for later Jews, the Song was regarded as an allegory, interpreted as a dialogue of love between the Shekinah, the nation of the Israelites, with whom God has made His sacred covenant, and God. The beloved, or the Shekinah, is the Kabbalah’s interpretation of the goddess. In the Song she is described as bride, daughter and sister. Originally, she is the planet Venus, the goddess of love and war of Antiquity.

メルカバ文献では、『雅歌』に基づいて、神を人の似姿(Shiur Komah)で詳しく記述している。『雅歌』はカバラ関連文献の中で最も重要度が高く、神秘思想のシンボリズムの大半の出元である。全体は男と女が、愛されし者の美しさと素晴らしさを交互に歌い上げる詩文で構成されている。


If Mithraism was developed for the House of Commagene, then the Kabbalistic elements of Merkabah found in it must have been introduced by the House of Herod. Herod Agrippa also gave special favor to the Essenes.




Through the influence of the priest-kings of Emesa, Mithraism retained its roots in Baal worship. Essentially, the Mithraic mysteries combined the occult mystery rites originally practiced in Babylon, and adapted by the Magi, to the worship of the emperor, as a personification of their god the Sun. Through the influence of the Commagenian dynasty, this cult retained its Persian themes, but visualized its god Mithras in the physical form of Alexander the Great, their progenitor.



The ascent through the seven “palaces”, or planets, of Merkabah mysticism seems to have been introduced to the primitive mystery rites the heretical Magi, forming the Roman Mysteries of Mithras, spread far and wide by the Roman soldiers, and through Mithraism, to the other schools of Hellenistic mysticism. Ezekiel’s vision held striking similarities to the Mithraic image of the Leontocephalus, as well as to the Orphic Phanes.



According to the Orphic Theogonies, Phanes, identified with Kronos, or Time, and equated with Saturn, is described as “a serpent having heads growing upon him of a bull and a lion, and in the middle the face of a god; and he has also wings upon his shoulders, and is called ageless Time, and Herakles the same.”


Much like the “creatures” that support the chariot in Ezekiel, the Leontocephalus is usually depicted as a lion-headed youth, covered in Zodiac signs, with two sets of wings, the feet of a goat, and coiled by a serpent. The Leontocephalus was depicted standing on a globe, on which there are two circles intersecting each other, the “wheel inside a wheel”, which Celsus explained, “is a symbol of the two orbits in heaven, the one being that of the fixed stars and the other that assigned to the planets.”



Ultimately, reserved for the highest-ranking members, and representing the ultimate mystery, the Leontocephalus was equated with Mithras, Phanes and Ahriman, the Zoroastrian devil, all as one god. Macrobius recorded that, according to Orpheus: “one Zeus, one Hades [Greek god of the Underworld], one Sun, one Dionysus.”


Musei Vaticani Leontocephaline11042017.jpg
レオントセファルス(出典:Wikipedia Commons)

The Leontocephalus has also been identified with Saturn. In Armenian texts Saturn is called Zurvan, and according to Ptolemy, the people of Persia and Mesopotamia “worship the star of Aphrodite [Venus], naming it Isis, and the star of Kronos [Saturn] as Mithras Helios.” Saturn, known as the nocturnal Sun, and “Pluto”, Porphyry explained, “is the Sun going beneath the earth and voyaging round the invisible world…”