2018-06-29宗教, 文明文化の話, 神秘思想・秘儀宗教

(アイキャッチ画像はユング夫妻。出典:http://www.cgjungny.org/ )




Jung restated an old Gnostic insight when he said that the extraverted human ego must first become thoroughly aware of its own alienation from the greater Self before it can begin to return to a state of closer union with the unconscious.

Until we become thoroughly aware of the inadequacy of our extraverted state and of its insufficiency in regard to our deeper spiritual needs, we shall not achieve even a measure of individuation, through which a wider and more mature personality emerges.

ユングはいにしえから伝わるグノーシス主義の洞察をこう言い直している。人間の外向的自我(ego)は、自分がより大きな自己(Self)から切り離されていることを十全に理解しなければ、無意識(the unconscious)との緊密な結合状態に立ち戻れない、と。


The alienated ego is the precursor and an inevitable precondition of the individuated ego. Like Jung, the Gnostics did not necessarily reject the actual earth itself, which they recognized as a screen upon which the Demiurge of the mind projects his deceptive system.

To the extent that we find a condemnation of the world in Gnostic writings, the term used is inevitably kosmos, or this aeon, and never the word ge (earth), which they regarded as neutral if not as outright good.




グノーシスの宇宙観(出典: http://www.angelfire.com/scary/nyarlathotep/Gnostic_Cosmology.htm


What was Jung’s true view of Gnosticism?

Unlike most scholars until quite recently, Jung never believed Gnosticism to have been a Christian heresy of the second and third centuries. Neither did he pay attention to the endless disputes of experts about the possible Indian, Iranian, Greek and other origins of Gnosticism.




Earlier than any authority in the field of Gnostic studies, Jung recognized the Gnostics for what they were: seers who brought forth original, primal creations from the mystery which he called the unconscious.

When in 1940 he was asked “Is Gnosticism philosophy or mythology?”, he gravely replied that the Gnostics dealt in real, original images and that they were not syncretistic philosophers as so many assumed.

He recognized that Gnostic images arise even today in the inner experiences of persons in connection with the individuation of the psyche, and in this he saw evidence of the fact that the Gnostics were expressing true archetypal images which are known to persist and to exist irrespective of time or of historical circumstances.





He recognized in Gnosticism a mighty and utterly primal and original expression of the human mind, an expression directed toward the deepest and most important task of the soul, which is attainment to wholeness.

The Gnostics, so Jung perceived, were interested in one thing above all―the experience of the fullness of being. Since this was both his own personal interest and the objective of his psychology, it is axiomatic that his affinity for the Gnostics and their wisdom was very great indeed.




Many have wondered why Jung should have chosen the obscure and long-ridiculed occult discipline of alchemy as one of the favorite subjects of his research.

The answer to the quandary, though clearly given by Jung himself, has failed to elicit the response that it warrants. For about a dozen years, from the First World War until 1926, Jung devoted himself with great zeal to the study of the literature on Gnosticism then available to him.

In spite of the fragmentary and distorted character of this literary material, he became both well informed about Gnosticism and thoroughly imbued with its spirit, as proven by the content of the Seven Sermons to the Dead.



文献は断片的で多くのノイズを含んでいたが、彼はグノーシス主義を熟知し、その精神性を自分に染み入らせ、成果を『死者への七つの語らい』(”Seven Sermons to the Dead”)にまとめた。


What Jung could not find at first, however, was some sort of a bridge or link that might have connected the Gnosis of old with later periods, including the contemporary one.

Some Grail-like vessel was needed wherein the precious elixir, once used by such masters as Valentinus and Basilides, was preserved and in which it was carried through the centuries to attract would-be Gnostic Parsifals in our own era.



A vessel that serves as an important motif in Arthurian literature. Different traditions describe it as a cup, dish or stone with miraculous powers that provide happiness, eternal youth or sustenance in infinite abundance. The term “holy grail” is often used to denote an object or goal that is sought after for its great significance.
(アーサー王伝説にまつわる文学上の重要なモチーフ。各地の伝承によってその実体は杯、皿、石など様々に変わる。いずれも人間に幸福や永遠の若さ、あるいは無限の豊穣をもたらす奇蹟の力を秘めているとされる。”holy grail” は、重要な意味をもつ物体または目標を探し求めることの比喩として多用される。)
なお、聖書の最後の晩餐に使われた聖杯を区別して呼ぶときは、chalice、holy chaliceとも。
Pieter Bruegel the Elder - The Alchemist.JPG
ブリューゲルが描いた16世紀の錬金術師の実験室(出典: Wikipedea)


Jung’s intuition declared to him that there must be such a bridge, such a connecting link in the chain of wisdom, but he could not rationally discern where it was to be sought.

Then, as usual, he was aided by a dream. In it he was carried back into the seventeenth century when alchemy still flourished in Europe. A recognition dawned on him. Here, he thought, is the missing link of the descent of the Gnosis!

Thus began his great research, which eventually led him to proclaim that alchemy indeed represented the historical link with Gnosticism, and that a definite continuity therefore existed between the past and present.




Jung stated that, grounded in the natural Philosophy of the Middle Ages, alchemy on the one hand formed the bridge into the past, to Gnosticism, and on the other to the future, to modern depth psychology. Thus came to pass one of the significant hallmarks of esoteric historical exploration.

Alchemy was discovered to be none other than the bridge over which the Gnosis of old traversed the ages and entered the modern world as the Jungian psychology of the unconscious.




The implications regarding the connections of Jung’s thought with Gnosticism, although seldom mentioned in the past, are nevertheless clear for all to see.

They may be summed up as follows: Jung might be viewed as a modern-day Gnostic who absorbed the Gnosis, both by way of his inner transformation and his confirming study of Gnostic literature.

He knew that in his psychology he was putting forward an essentially Gnostic discipline of transformation in contemporary guise.

He needed to discover a historical connection between his own efforts and those of the Gnostic teachers of antiquity. He was also in need of a statement of the Gnostic method of transformation that was not fragmentary but contained an adequate vocabulary of psychologically valid symbols to be made useful within the context of the study of the human mind today.

In alchemy he found precisely what he sought. Thus the answer to his dreams came heralded by a dream.







In alchemy Jung contacted one of the most important branches of what has sometimes been called the Pansophic Tradition, or the wisdom heritage which descended from Gnostic, Hermetic, and Neo-Platonic sources, through numerous later manifestations, to contemporary times.

This Pan-Sophic, or Theo-Sophic tradition was recognized by Jung to have taken many forms throughout the ages, but also to have been particularly manifest in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries within the movement of modern Theosophy, enunciated by the Russian noblewoman and world-traveler, Madame H. P. Blavatsky.

In such works as The Undiscovered Self and Civilization in Transition Jung clearly recognized modern Theosophy as an important contemporary manifestation of Gnosticism, and he likened it to a submarine mountain range spreading beneath the waves of the mainstream culture, with only the projecting mountain peaks becoming visible from time to time through the attention received by Mme. Blavatsky, Annie Besant, Krishnamurti and others.

ユングは錬金術の中に、きわめて重要な汎知学の伝統(Pansophic Tradition)を見出した。汎知学とは古代のグノーシス思想、ヘルメス思想、ネオプラトニズムを源流としてその後も様々なかたちで語り継がれてきた知恵の遺産である。


ユングはその著作 “The Undiscovered Self” や “Civilization in Transition” の中で、近代神智学を、現代にグノーシス主義を再生させた重要な思想運動と捉え、メイン文化の波立つ水面下に広がる海底山脈にたとえる。その頂の高さは、ブラヴァツキー夫人、アニー・ベサント、ジッドゥ・クリシュナムルティなどの著作により測られる、と。


As Jung repeatedly emphasized, orthodox Christianity (and, one should include orthodox Judaism as well) has demonstrably failed to satisfy the deepest and most essential needs of the soul of Western humanity.

Christian theology was far too rationalistic, reductionistic and insensitive to the profound reaches of the human soul. As the church came to ally herself with one hopelessly unspiritual secular establishment after the other, from Constantine to Mussolini, so also her spirit atrophied under the baneful influence of Aristotelian logic and other structures of thought which stifled the urge of believers toward personal psychic transformation.

In this climate of spiritual aridity, which persisted for some 1700 years, the desire for individuation frequently turned to the alternative spirituality of the Pansophic or Theosophic transmission which, while not exclusively Gnostic in the classical sense, contained a large component of Gnosticism.













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