2018-11-01AI・自動化, 名言集, 文明文化の話, 英語の話

(アイキャッチ画像出典:Evening Standard)





Yet before Sapiens, published originally in Hebrew, Yuval Noah Harari, born in Israel in 1976, was almost unknown.

He used to be a specialist in medieval military history, studying at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, followed by a PhD at Oxford, although he now says he doesn’t know why he chose this subject.

As a boy, he had been fascinated by the really big questions about life and was amazed that adults were preoccupied with money, careers and politics. “I made a promise to myself that when I was grown up, I would still care about the big questions.”




Working at Oxford, he felt he couldn’t make sense of his life. Then, aged 24, he tried a 10-day course of Vipassana meditation, the practice of attending to one’s own mind and body, beginning simply with breathing, following a tradition taught by the Buddha, but accessible to those who are not committed Buddhists.

Harari says in his new book: “I think I learned more about myself and about humans in general by observing my sensations for these 10 days than I learned in my whole life up to that point.”



※新著とは2018年8月末刊行予定の “21 Lessons for the 21st Century” のこと。


On happiness(幸福について)

“Happiness does not really depend on objective conditions of either wealth, health or even community. Rather, it depends on the correlation between objective conditions and subjective expectations.


On money(貨幣について)

“Money is the most universal and most efficient system of mutual trust ever devised.”


On the workplace(職業について)

“How many young college graduates have taken demanding jobs in high-powered firms, vowing that they will work hard to earn money that will enable them to retire and pursue their real interests when they are 35? But by the time they reach that age, they have large mortgages, children to school, houses in the suburbs that necessitate at least two cars per family, and a sense that life is not worth living without really good wine and expensive holidays abroad. What are they supposed to do, go back to digging up roots? No, they double their efforts and keep slaving away.”


slave away

On the diet economy(ダイエット経済について)

“Each year the US population spends more money on diets than the amount needed to feed all the hungry people in the rest of the world.”


On the rise of the machines(機械の台頭について)

“In the past there were many things only humans could do. But now robots and computers are catching up, and may soon outperform humans in most tasks.

True, computers function very differently from humans, and it seems unlikely that computers will become human-like any time soon…. However, we are on the brink of a momentous revolution. Humans are in danger of losing their economic value because intelligence is decoupling from consciousness.”


確かにコンピュータは機能面で人間と大きな違いがある。いますぐ人間と同じように働くようになるとは思えない。…しかし重大な革命はもうすぐそこに来ている。知能と意識が別々の領域に分かれつつあるので、人間は知能を使う仕事で経済的価値を失う危険があるのだ。(『Homo Deus』)

On biology v culture(生物学vs文化)

“Biology enables, culture forbids. Biology is willing to tolerate a very wide spectrum of possibilities. It’s culture that obliges people to realise some possibilities while forbidding others. Biology enables women to have children — some cultures oblige women to realise this possibility. Biology enables men to enjoy sex with one another — some cultures forbid them to realise this possibility.”


On sugar(糖分摂取について)

“In 2012 about 56 million people died throughout the world; 620,000 of them died due to human violence… In contrast, 800,000 committed suicide and 1.5 million died of diabetes. Sugar is more dangerous than gunpowder.”

「2012年世界の死者は約5,600万人だった。そのうち62万人が人間の暴力によって死亡した…それに対して80万人が自殺し、150万人が糖尿病で死亡した。砂糖は火薬よりも危険である」(『Homo Deus』)

On the meaning of life(人生の意味について)

“As far as we can tell from a purely scientific viewpoint, human life has absolutely no meaning. Humans are the outcome of blind evolutionary processes that operate without goal or purpose. Our actions are not part of some divine cosmic plan, and if planet Earth were to blow up tomorrow morning, the universe would probably keep going about its business as usual … human subjectivity would not be missed. Hence any meaning that people ascribe to their lives is just a delusion.”


On terrorism(テロリズムについて)

“Terrorists are like a fly that tries to destroy a china shop. The fly is so weak that it cannot budge even a single teacup. So it finds a bull, gets inside its ear and starts buzzing. The bull goes wild with fear and anger and destroys the china shop. This is what happened in the Middle East in the past decade. Islamic fundamentalists could never have toppled Saddam Hussein by themselves. Instead they enraged the US by the 9/11 attacks, and the US destroyed the Middle Eastern china shop for them.”

テロリストは瀬戸物屋を破壊しようとする蠅のようなものだ。蠅は力が弱いので茶碗ひとつ動かせない。そこで牛を見つけ、耳の中に入ってブンブン言い始める。牛は恐怖と怒りで荒れ狂い、瀬戸物屋をぶち壊す。これが過去10年に中東で起きたことである。イスラム原理主義者だけであれば、けっしてサダム・フセインを打倒できなかっただろう。だから彼らは9.11攻撃で米国を激怒させた。米国は彼らの代わりに中東の瀬戸物屋を破壊したのである。(『Homo Deus』)

新著 “21 Lessons for the 21st Century” より

  • “No remaining human job will ever be safe from the threat of future automation.”
  • “Once AI makes better decisions than us about careers and perhaps even relationships, our concept of humanity and of life will have to change.”
  • “By 2100, the richest one per cent might own not merely most of the world’s wealth, but also most of the world’s beauty, creativity and health.”
  • “The most up-to-date nuclear missiles and cyber bombs might well be employed to settle a doctrinal argument about medieval texts.”
  • “Humans have always lived in the age of post-truth. Homo sapiens is a post-truth species, whose power depends on creating and believing fictions.”
    • 未来の自動化の脅威から安全だと言える人間の仕事はもう残っていない。
    • AIが職業適性について、あるいは人間関係についてさえ、人間より優れた判断を下すようになれば、私たちは人間性の定義、人生の定義を変えざるをえない。
    • 最も裕福な1%は2100年までに世界の富の大半を所有するだろう。世界の美、創造性、健康の大半もまた彼らの手に落ちるに違いない。
    • 中世以来の神学論争はいまだに決着がつかない。最新の核ミサイルやサイバー爆弾で解決される可能性を否定できない。
    • 人間はつねに “ポスト真実” の時代を生きてきた。ホモ・サピエンスは “ポスト真実” の種であり、虚構を創造し、それを信じる力で生き延びてきた。